KBK Group

About KBK Innovation Hub

KBK Environ Infrastructures Ltd. aims to harness the potential of Indigenous Nanobubbles Technology for a quantum improvement in the quality of water.Indigenous Nanobubbles Technology in Water Purification  is set to revolutionize the process of water and wastewater treatment globally. Since 2004 KBK Innovation Hub is a trailblazer in customized research based innovative solutions for various sectors.

The Indigenous Nanobubbles Technology project of KBK Innovation Hub is being implemented under the advice of the internationally renowned scientist, Dr. Kishore Paknikar.


Our Innovators

Dr Kishore Paknikar

Dr. Kishore Paknikar

Project Director

Professor Agharkar Chair, Agharkar Research Institute, Pune

Visiting Professor – Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai

Visiting Professor – Malviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur

Science of Nanobubbles Technology in Water Purification

Nanobubbles are miniature gas bubbles in liquids, less than 200 nm in diameter, which have several unique physical properties.
Longevity, virtual disappearance of buoyancy, high internal pressure, extremely large surface/volume ratio, high oxygen dissolution rate and generation of free radicals are the important features of nanobubbles.

Underwater behavior of nanobubbles and microbubbles

  • Nanobubbles remain stable in water for a long period because of their negatively charged surface (zeta potential).
  • The internal pressure of nanobubbles in liquids is much higher than that of their environment,
  • which helps in very efficient dissolution of the gas into the liquids
  • While rising in water, the collapsing nanobubbles generate free radicals that catalyze chemical oxidation reactions.
  • These remarkable properties of nanobubbles have led to many applications in the various
  • fields of science and technology, including industrial, biological and medical fields.

Indigenous Nanobubbles Technology in Water Purification

Indigenous Nanobubbles Technology in water purification is developed by applying the shear resistance relationship between the interface of the object and the adjacent area. When gas (eg. oxygen) is splitted into nano size by the shear force generated at the interface of the object, dissolved gas is increased. Nano-sized bubble (gas) exists in water for a long time without degassing, and dissolved gas is maintained high for a long time.

Oxygenated Nanobubble Generator Device

Indigenous Nanobubbles Generator  (NBG)

(With Dissolved Oxygen Enrichment Device)


  • Increases Dissolved Oxygen (DO) levels rapidly
  • Removes bad smells
  • Decomposes sludge at the bottom of the water body
  • Stimulates self-purification to recover clean water environment
  • Degradation of organic compounds, reduction of excess nutrients and elimination of floating algae
  • Kills anaerobic microbes and promotes aerobic microbes

Product Specifications | Standard Options

Model 1 Model 2
Capacity: 5 m3/h Capacity: 10 m3/h
Bubble size <200 nm Bubble size <200 nm
Oxygen generator- in built Oxygen generator- in built
Power Consumption: 2.75 kwh Power Consumption: 3.75 kwh
Power Supply: 220V, 50 Hz, Single/Three Phase Power Supply: 220V, 50 Hz, Single/Three Phase


Indigenous Nanobubbles Generators with online monitoring of DO levels, temperature and pH can be supplied on demand


Following variant models can be manufactured on demand:

Lower capacity (0.5 m3/h , 1 033/h, 2 m3/h)

Higher capacity up to 50 m/h

220V/440V, 50Hz/60 Hz

With in-built ozone generator in place of oxygen generator

Advanced Options

Model 1 Model 2
Capacity: 5 m3/h Capacity: 10 m3/h
Bubble size <200 nm Bubble size <200 nm
Oxygen generator- in built Oxygen generator- in built
Power Consumption: 3.7 kwh Power Consumption: 7.5 kwh
Power Supply: 220V, 50 Hz, Single/Three Phase Power Supply: 220V, 50 Hz, Single/Three Phase
Customized PLC Controller by Calpeda Italy Customized PLC Controller by Calpeda Italy
2 x VFD by Danfoss 2 x VFD by Danfoss
Display: 7 inch TFT Display: 7 inch TFT
Pumps: Self Priming (MPCM-31/A), Booster (MXH 805/B) by Calpeda, Italy Pumps: Self Priming (MPCM-41), Booster (MXH 1605/B) by Calpeda, Italy





Treatments with Nanobubbles Technology in Water Purification

Treatment of Waste Water with Nanobubble Generator Device

Test Results at IARI, New Delhi

Nanobubbles Treatment of Fish Farm

KBK conducted demonstration of the operations  of Indigenous Nanobubbles Technology at Mickey’s Fish Farm, Chamkaur Sahib, Punjab, from 30th September to 4th October, 2019. A 3.5 acre aquaculture pond having DO level < 5 mg/L was cleaned in a five-day operation. The excessive algal growth was effectively controlled and DO levels rose rapidly.  Interestingly, the DO levels continued to to be in a healthy range for several weeks even after stoppage of the KBK’s experiment. These results clearly showed that the pond water system was completely restored and became self-sustainable. Most importantly, the farmer confirmed that the use of Indigenous Nanobubbles Technology led to cleaning of the pond water, removal of associated foul smell, improved health status of the fish, and increased fish production to the tune of 40%. These results reaffirm KBK’s confidence in the Indigenous Nanobubbles Technology, which is set to improve fish productivity several folds and contribute immensely to the Blue Revolution.

Scientists of Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana conducted an independent study to assess the performance of the Indigenous Nanobubbles Technology at Mickey’s Fish Farm. The scientists reported a significant improvement in the water quality of the pond in only three days of treatment with the nanobubbles. The colour of the pond water changed from dark green to light green. Furthermore, the COD and BOD levels of the pond decreased by more than 30% suggesting rapid chemical and biological degradation of the pollutants. KBK Innovation Hub has continued monitoring the DO of pond water after 5 days operation. It is found that the DO is being maintained at optimum level naturally. These results highlight the utility of Indigenous Nanobubbles Technology in rapidly reinvigorating aquaculture ponds.

Test at at Mickey’s Fish Farm, Chamkaur Sahib, Punjab


Many systematic studies carried out across the globe indicate that super saturation of oxygen has a positive effect on growth and feed conversion ratio of fish. Blood parameters, including triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol improved. IgG and IgM immunoglobulins were significantly enhanced indicating immunity. The size and weight of fish increased 2-3 folds. Nanobubbles-enabled aeration certainly has a bright future for increasing the productivity in aquaculture industry.

Nanobubbles Treatment at Poultry Farm

It is very common to find underground water in chicken farms, in broiler as well egg laying hen farms. Underground water can be very poor in DO content. Oxygenated water has been found to be an effective factor to improve feed efficiency in the birds by improving body metabolism, resulting in a 32% increase in feed efficiency and 12% reduction in feed costs. High DO level improves water quality by reducing or eliminating harmful gases, minerals and pathogens. Breeder and Layer birds require additional oxygen for improving their metabolism to assimilate high energy feed. Oxygen supplementation improves blood parameters, including triacyl glyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Additionally, generation of globulins, viz. IgG and IgM generation is significantly enhanced when oxygen is supplied to broiler chickens.

In a recent study undertaken by KBK Innovation Hub in a poultry farm, very interesting findings were obtained when the drinking water with nanobubbles enhanced DO content was supplied to the birds.

Under poultry trials increase in egg production as well as decrease in mortality are about 10 percent. The overall health of the birds improved significantly.

Furthermore, after the application, within just 10 days, all the residues and sediments in the water pipes were cleaned. Clogged water lines, filters and nipple drinkers were also completely cleaned.

New & Emerging Applications of Nanobubble Technology

Water and Wastewater Treatment

Given their ability to generate highly reactive free radicals, nanobubbles have a great potential in water and wastewater treatment. In this context, air nanobubbles as a pretreatment means have been shown to be highly beneficial for downsizing the water/wastewater treatment plants and improving the quality of product water by diminishing chemical, biological and physical loads. The collapse of nanobubbles is associated with the generation of highly reactive free radicals providing a great potential for water disinfection. It has been found that ozone nanobubbles cause faster disinfection kinetics of Escherichia coli, leading to a reduced reactor size and smaller ozone dose compared with conventional ozone disinfection. Moreover, ozone nanobubbles have been proved to prevent pathogen growth in swimming pools and public baths. Furthermore, the removal of organic pollutants with nanobubbles has been widely studied. Nanobubbles have been used for the removal of various organic compounds and dyes such as rhodamine B, p-nitrophenol, and alachlor.


Flotation is a technique, widely used by the mining industry, for the separation of minerals, phosphates, or coal from gangue. Flotation is also one of the processes used for the recovery of recycled paper and wastewater treatment. It has been shown that by using nanobubbles in the flotation process, coal and phosphate recovery is improved.


Nanobubble Technology is being explored for increasing the efficiency of the established technology of using chemicals (polymers, surfactants) for Enhanced Oil Recovery from wells.

Surface Cleaning

It has been proven that absorption of various components onto surfaces could be inhibited by nanobubbles, thus preventing the surfaces from fouling. Also, nanobubbles could have an effect on the surface tension of water. Thus, the potential applications are in engineering, automobile, construction, shipping, pharmaceutical, dentistry and food processing.

Reduced Water Washing of Denim Garments

The washing of denim garments to give them self-identity and therefore add value for the final consumer has historically been a water intensive process. The integration of Nanobubble Technology into the con­ventional finishing processes will ensure denim garments can be produced with less water. 


A recent paper investigated the application of Micro-Nano Air Bubbles (MNAB) to the water, used for concrete production. Results show that MNAB could effectively improve the mechanical properties of the concrete while reducing its workability. It was observed that compression and tensile strength increased by 16% and 19% respectively, while the temperature during the setting dropped remarkably. The initial and final setting times were also reduced, meaning that this kind of concrete needs to be cast in shorter periods of time, compared to the ordinary concrete.

These findings could attract the attention of those industries which are working on precast concrete where the less setting time is usually followed by a lower production cost. The manufacture of concrete massive blocks, which usually generate a big amount of heat during the setting and consequently fine cracks, also may benefit from MNAB technology.